£4.2bn cuts to the Universities?

October 15, 2010
Great Hall before BUAFTAs night

Image by Nickster 2000 via Flickr

So it came to pass that the £4.2bn cut didn’t happen – whether it was on the cards, or was an erroneous leak, who can say. But this post isn’t going to be deleted – just left in place as a monument to a jerking-knee and as a constant reminder about Cameron’s pledge to science…

A quick and hopefully not too ranty post in which I point out that David Cameron is a liar.


The great hall of Birmingham University is quite an imposing place. It is where I sat my final biochemistry exam and where my graduation was held in 2000.

 

It was also chosen as the venue for the 3rd and final election debate for the 2010 UK general election. On the 29th of April this year, the leaders of the three political parties answered a variety of questions on the public finances, education and business.

During this exchange, David Cameron responded to a question regarding the rebuilding of the manufacturing industry in the UK as follows:

“Let’s start with investing in our science base and making sure great universities like this are producing the scientists and entrepreneurs of the future.”

And despite these fine and (dare I say), wholly sensible words, today it has been revealed that the UK university and science sectors will have their budgets slashed by an amazing £4.2bn.

This is most certainly not investing in our science base.

This is destroying it.

As the Science is Vital campaign has been so good at pointing out, a supply of well trained graduates and the maintenance of world class centres of research and innovation are essential for the continued existence of STEM-based industries within the UK economy, which account for roughly 40% of our GDP.

This is a huge backwards step which will do nothing for the UK economy – the short term gain by saving £4.2bn will translate into long term pain, as STEM-based industries desert the United Kingdom for countries like the US, Canada, Germany, etc which have the presence and forethought to maintain investment in their universities and research institutes.

I am afraid that I don’t have the literary legerdemain to describe how annoyed, frustrated and depressed I am about this without descending into a tirade of profanity.


Scientific evidence for homeopathy?

October 2, 2010
Homeopathic repertory, by J.T. Kent.

Homeopathic repertory, by J.T. Kent. (Image via Wikipedia)

I had to do this in lots of small doses to prevent the stupid rubbing off…


People with bad-science style blogs, or on twitter may have noticed ‘Dr’ Nancy Malik and co pushing a google knol page in which said homeopathic astroturfer had dumped a whole bunch of links to homeopathy paper that she concludes has “confirmed the efficacy of homeopathic medicine.”

O RLY?

First thing to note is that she reckons there are 130+ studies… just under 100 by my reckoning, but then I didn’t count the 59 instances of multiple posting of the same paper, or indeed the many websites, news articles and blog posts which are not peer-reviewed.

I’ve gone through Malik’s knol page (fixing some of her wretched formatting quirks), and annotating each paper. My annotations appears as blockquotes. There are a few instances where I ‘ve not been able to access the full text of an article. If you can, e-mail me at xtaldaveblog_squiggle_gmail_dot_com. I have NOT drilled down into papers that might be mentioned on pages linked to, because, to be honest, I have a career and a family, and I can only read so many crappy clinical trials in a week.

Picking holes in the individual papers was not a particularly arduous task, but the sheer quantity of piffle to plough through meant that it took a while. At some point, I intend to create a searchable spreadsheet… watch this space…

The basic take home message is that the vast majority of these studies fail to impress as they have very small sample sizes. Mostly less than 100 patients per group, occasionally down to single figures. There are also plenty of instances where remedies are used at dilutions below 12C – thereby suggesting that active ingredients may actually remain – thus the ‘prior probability‘ of these remedies is non-zero. I have no real issue with the plausibility of such remedies – but let us be clear that in such cases the homeopathic bells and whistles (like succussion) have not been shown to have a demonstrable effect. This does not mean of course, that sub 12C remedies do not need to have their efficacy assessed in a correct and rigorous manner.


TRIPLE-BLIND STUDIES

1. Journal of Psychosomatic Research (Pergamon)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016577 (2004) //Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Subjective, Patient questionnaires to measure outcome of 92 patients. p=0.09 – is not generally considered to be significant.

DBRPCT

World’s first DBRPCT was conducted in 1835 by a homeopath physician Johann Jacob Reuter,

http://www.jameslindlibrary.org/trial_records/19th_Century/lohner/lohner-commentary.html

Hardly relevant, as it is not peer reviewed. Worth mentionning only because it demonstrates the amazing ability of Malik to post things without actually reading them or critically assessing them. The DBRPCT concluded that “The vast majority of those who had received the homeopathic salt dilution had thus not experienced any ‘effect’. The investigators concluded that Reuter was wrong.”

1. Lancet

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310601 (1997) //homeopathy is statistically significantly superior (2.45 times more effective and positive) to placebo

The 1997 Linde review was updated in 1999 and concludes “Our analyses provide clear evidence that in the study set investigated more rigorous trials tended to yield smaller effect sizes.”
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00048-7

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2886%2990410-1/abstract (1986) //hay fever

Only 52/56 patients in each group. Only subjective scores changed – objective measures like IgE no different.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2894%2990407-3/abstract (1994) //homeopathy does more than placebo

15/13 patients in each group. Conventional meds taken alongside homeopathy. No difference in objective measures.

2. British Medical Journal

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/302/6772/316 (1991) //105 studies: 77% of studies show positive result of homeopathy

CONCLUSIONS–At the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means of well performed trials.

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7259/471 (2000) FULL TEXT //allergic rhinitis

51 patients. Flawed Statistics.
“Editor – Taylor et al came to the conclusion that “this study has failed to confirm our original hypothesis that homeopathy is a placebo” [1]. Unfortunately, the statistics do not prove that. The basis for the study was a prestudy power calculation [2] which required 120 patients to prove the hypothesis, with a 5% significance and an 80% power, infact only the study only recruited 51 patients, but analysed the results as if they had the required number. In fact their only conclusion was that they do not have enough data to make a conclusion. If we accept the availability of only 51 patients at the outset, what are the relevant calculations ? The power calculation is only 43%, and to maintain the power calculation at 80%, the “p-value” becomes 34% ! The only conclusion is that the trial is not able to prove anything.”

http://nationalcenterforhomeopathy.org/content/effect-of-homoeopathic-treatment-on-fibrositis (1989) //fibromyalgia (Inflammation in muscles)

Not beyond Avagadros constant. “We showed that the homoeopathic medicine R toxicodendron 6c was effective for a selected subgroup of patients with fibrositis.”

http://www.vithoulkas.com/images/stories/Articles/premenstrual_syndrome_orig_paper.pdf (2001) //Pre Mensuration Syndrome

8/11 patients participated in each arm of this trial. Pitiful.

3.Chest

http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/127/3/936.full (2005) FULL TEXT //Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

25 patients in each group – groups not properly matched.
http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2007/07/homeopathy_in_thecringeicu_1.php

4. European Journal of Paedretics (SpringerLink)

http://adhdinfocentre.com/homeopathy/Homeopathic%20treatment%20of%20children%20with%20attention%20deficit%20hyperactivity%20disorder.pdf (2005) FULL TEXT //ADHD

Cochrane review of Homeopathy for ADHD (which includes this study) concludes “Overall the results of this review found no evidence of effectiveness for homeopathy for the global symptoms, core symptoms or related outcomes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005648/frame.html

5. Interdisciplinary Sciences: Life Sciences (SpringerLink)

http://www.springerlink.com/content/0557v31188m3766x/fulltext.pdf (2009) FULL TEXT //electromagnetic properties of highly-diluted biological samples

Debunked here – http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/?p=2081

6. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

http://journals.lww.com/pidj/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=03000&article=00005&type=abstract (2003) // diarrhea

Debunked here: http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/?p=508

http://journals.lww.com/pidj/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2001&issue=02000&article=00012&type=abstract (2001) //otitis media

Not statistically significant. “There were fewer treatment failures in the group receiving homeopathy after 5 days, 2 weeks and 6 weeks, with differences of 11.4, 18.4 and 19.9%, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant.”

7. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (InterScience by Wiley)

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03116.x/abstract (2009) //Psoriasis

No Placebo Control

8. Ear, Nose and Throat disorders (Bio Med Central)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6815/9/7 (2009) FULL TEXT //chronic sinusitis

No Placebo Control

9. Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press)

http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/94/2/368 (2006) //why small doses is better than large dose

Paper concerns HORMESIS and NOT HOMEOPATHY. Doesn’t even mention homeopathy.

10. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery (American Medical Association)

http://archfaci.ama-assn.org/content/8/1/54.long (2006) FULL TEXT //Arnica for bruising

14/15 patients in each group. This graph says it all.
http://archfaci.ama-assn.org/content/8/1/54/F3.large.gif

11. Sleep Medicine (Elseiver)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673648 (2010) //Nux Vomica 30 & Coffea Cruda 30 for insomnia

Patients with caffeine induced insomnia had to alter their caffeine intake to participate in the study.
Should be retitled “Altering caffeine intake in patients with caffeine induced insomnia alters their caffeine induced insomnia”

12. Cancer
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0142%2820010801%2992:3%3C684::AID-CNCR1371%3E3.0.CO;2-%23/full (2001) FULL TEXT //Traumeel S for stomatitis

15/15 patients in each group – Traumeel S is not diluted beyond 10^23…

13. Applied Health Economics & Health Policy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19799472 (2009) //Sinfrontal for ENT & respiratory tract infections

Can’t get full text – but it is clear that the remedy is not diluted beyond 10^23, Looks like their basis for Sinfrontal being superior is in part due to that that it is cheaper than genuine antibacterials. Also – it is not clear whether or not the cases of sinusitis studies were confirmed as being due to a bacterial infetion, rather than viral infection of allergen response.

14. Inflammation Research

http://vetpath.co.uk/voodoo/histamine.pdf (2004) FULL TEXT // homeopathy histamine modulates human basophil activation

Degrenulation studies discussed in depth here.
http://dannyb1022.wordpress.com/2009/09/05/the-faculty-of-homeopathy-%E2%80%9Canswers-the-critics%E2%80%9D-scientific-basis-of-homeopathy/

15. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America

http://www.rheumatic.theclinics.com/article/S0889-857X%2805%2970125-3/ (2000) //rheumatic diseases

Can’t get full text…

16. Pediatrics

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8165068 (1994) //diarrhea

Discussed here : http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/?p=472

17. Journal of Hellenic Headache Association

http://www.vithoulkas.com/content/view/280/lang,en/ (2006) //migraine

36 patients. Not placebo controlled.

18. Rheumatology (Oxford University Press)

http://bit.ly/9cs6C2 (2004)FULL TEXT// LM potency for fibromyalgia

26/27 patients in the study groups.

http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/39/7/714 (2000) FULL TEXT //osteo-arthritis of the knee

Not placebo controlled. Not clear if ingredients of gel are diluted beyond 10^23.

19. American Journal of Pain Management

http://www.homeopathic.org/content/osteoarthritic-pain-a-comparison-of-homeopathy-and-acetaminophen (1998) //pain due to osteo-arthritis

Not statistically significant, or placebo controlled.

20. Physica A

http://bit.ly/d7e0Oq (2003) //distinguishing one homeopathy medicine from another

Interesting, but largely irrelevant wrt homeopathy. Discussed here
http://apgaylard.wordpress.com/2009/09/13/a-homeopathic-refutation-%E2%80%93-part-two/

21. Journal of Clinical Gastro-enterology

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9451677 (1997) //post-operative ileus

Concludes “However, several caveats preclude a definitive judgment. These results should form the basis of a randomized controlled trial to resolve the issue.”

22. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

http://journals.lww.com/headtraumarehab/Abstract/1999/12000/Homeopathic_Treatment_of_Mild_Traumatic_Brain.2.aspx (1999) //Mild traumatic brain injury

Total of 50 patients. “Our findings require large-scale, independent replication.”

23. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

http://flusolution.net/bjcp.pdf (1989) FULL TEXT //influenza

Cochrane review of homeopathy for influenza: “Current evidence does not support a preventative effect of Oscillococcinum-like homeopathic medicines in influenza and influenza-like
syndromes.”http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab001957.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Search&term=Br%20J%20Clin%20Pharmacol[object 3]+AND+9[Volume]+AND+453[page] (1980) //rheumatoid arthritis

Only 26 patients in each group

24. Phlebology

“Complementary Treatment of Varicose Veins: A Randomised,
Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Trial” E. Ernst, T. Saradeth, K.L. Resch, 1990, 157-163.Over a period of 24 days, the effects of a homeopathic complex preparation and placebo on varicose veins were tested in a double-blind trial of 61 people suffering from this condition. The homeopathic complex produced an averaged 44%
improvement in the condition while those given the placebo experienced an averaged worsening of the disorder.

Can’t get full text.

25. Human and Experimental Toxicology

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7917505 (1994) //80% homeopathy medicines shows positive effects

Points out that many studies are of poor quality and lack replication – as the paper doesn’t make any specific claims of cure of efficacy ,hardly relevant.

26. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247843 (1997) //otitis media

Otitis media is a self-limiting condition with multiple causes. This paper compare Homeopathy with conventional meds – however, as no attempts appears to be made to determine what caused the OM, the conventional meds may be ineffective themselves, given that OM can be caused by viral infection, etc. No placebo control.

27.Journal of Dermatological Treatment

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09546639709160282 (1997) //Sulphur 6, Siliciea 6 & Carbo Veg 6 for ulcer

7 patients in each group. Not diluted beyond 10^23.

28 Archives of Otolaryngology – head and Neck Surgery

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9708713 (1998) //vertigo

Can’t get full text – but abstract reveals no placebo control – “+ve control” is against conventional meds which may or may not be effective depending on cause of vertigo.

29. Biological Therapy

http://www.heelusa.com/practitioners/clinicalresearch/Docs/Euphorbium/Homeopathic_Sinusitis_Medication.pdf (1995) FULL TEXT //sinus

HomeoNasal Spray not diluted beyond 10^23 – may contain active ingredients!

30. International Journal of High Dilution Research

http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/369 (2010) //Nux-Vomica, Merc, Belladonna for acute rhinitis

No Placebo control, and Rhinitis is another self-limiting condition which is often caused by viral infection, allergic reactions, seasonal responses to change in climate, etc etc.

http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/286/354 (2008) FULL TEXT // Quality of life, Cost effectiveness

Not a clinical trial.

31. The Science of the total Environment (Elseiver)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628642 (2007) //Arsenicum Album 30 for arsenic toxicity

Discussed here: http://theness.com/neurologicablog/?p=556#comment-12704

“a trial with no real inclusion criteria, poor randomisation, enormous drop out rate, that changes its protocol halfway to include meaningless controls, then utilises incorrect statistical techniques to analyse the wrong parameters.”

32. International Journal of Oncology

http://bit.ly/cM9faz (2003) //Ruta 6 for brain cancer

A cell culture-based paper with actual amounts of active ingredient – not homeopathy.

33. Nonlinear Biomedical Physics (Bio Med Central)

http://www.nonlinearbiomedphys.com/content/3/1/10 (2009) //Dilution beyond avogadro number

Noisy data. Cell culture based assay of a fungal enzyme.

34. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (German)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381725 (1997) //homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever

Not got full text. Outcome measured by the patient. “As not all of the single studies were analyzed by intention to treat analysis the results may be biased.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16425109 (2005)
//emergency/critically ill/ICU patients

Not got full text.

35. Der Kassenarzt (German)

http://www.vasezdravlje.com/izdanje/clanak/1874/ FULL TEXT // tonsillitis

Croatian, not german. Not sure where this is published, or if it is even peer reviewed. Treatments used not beyond 10^23.

36. Arzneimittel-Forschung (German) meaning Medicines Research (English)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15727161 (2005) //vertigo

No full text – but no placebo control.

HOMEOPATHY-ONLY JOURNALS:


1. Homeopathy (Elseiver)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725250 (2003)

This journal is hardly an unbiased observer in this case, and has been seen taking liberties with published data to provide support for homeopathy where support is not justified – including this paper – see https://xtaldave.wordpress.com/2010/01/18/diluting-the-truth/ (paper 2)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15892486 (2005) //severe sepsis

Only 35 patients per trial arm. This is in addition to conventional meds.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19135953 (2009) //treatment of respiratory infections by homeopathy is cheaper by 50% compared to conventional medicine

So apparently sugar is cheaper than real meds. Who knew?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15751328 (2005) //Inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose & throat

Concludes that homeopathy is better than antibiotics at treating acute rhinopharyngitis – but then given that most pharyngitis is viral – is that really a well designed trial? No. No placebo arm either.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129180 (2010) //placebo effect size same in allopathy & homeopathy medicine

“RESULTS: In 13 matched sets the placebo effect in the homeopathic trials was larger than the average placebo effect of the conventional trials, in 12 matched sets it was lower (P=0.39). Additionally, no subgroup analysis yielded any significant difference.” – Yeah, and?

http://bit.ly/9kWmuV (2010) //Leptospirosis (fever+jaundice+ inflammation in kidney+enlargement of spleen)

Debunked here –
http://apgaylard.wordpress.com/2010/08/08/much-ado-about-nothing/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647206 (2009) //oral ulcer

Not diluted beyond 10^23. Only single (patient) blinded.

http://bit.ly/bpXyQX (2010) FULL TEXT //chronic insomnia

Only 30 patients in total. Sleep quality questionnaire were only outcome measure.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358959 (2009) //homeopathy as an adjunct to usual care for fibromyalgia

47 patients. No placebo arm.

http://bit.ly/9R3TVG (2006) FULL TEXT //patho-genetic trials

About provings. Not particularly relevant.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371566 (2008) //osteo-arthritis

The paper is so badly written, it’s difficult to see quite what they intended to show. No placebo arm, doesn’t mention blinding, 47 patients in total.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371568 (2008) // 3C differs from 4C

The fact that Malik thinks that the fact that a 100^3 dilution differs from a 100^4 dilution is significant suggests an astonishing lack of chemistry knowledge.
All I have to say is “well-duh”

2. British Homoeopathic Journal

http://bit.ly/aojfhY (1986) //Arnica, Bryonia & Rhus Tox for fibromyalgia

24 Patients. “homœopathy produced a statistically significant improvement, but only when the prescribed remedy was well indicated.” – “well indicated” is a subjective assessment by the homeopath…

http://bit.ly/ar8PhX (1993) //Caulophyllum 7C reduces duration of labour by 90 minutes

7C may contain active ingredient. No Placebo arm. Control group may not be well matched, and have some spuriously long labour times, which skewed average.

3. Berlin Journal of Research in Homeopathy

http://www.modernhomoeopathy.com/research_and_homeopathy.htm

Not peer-reviewed as far as I can tell

4. American Journal of Homoeopathic Medicine

(http://www.homeopathyusa.org/journal)Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases in Children, 2009, 102 (3): 122-129

Not listed in Pubmed.

5. Asian Journal of Homeopathy (homoeomag@yahoo.com)

To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathy in medical primary care in upper and lower respiratory tract complaints, 01 Feb 2008, pp. 3-19

Not listed in Pubmed

6. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy, Govt of India

http://ccrhindia.org/cumulative/clinicalresearch.htm(1985-1998)

Link broken – not peer-reviewed

http://ccrhindia.org/collaborative.asp (1988-2007)

Link broken – not peer-reviewed

CAM JOURNALS


1.Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine(Liebert)

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2007.0560 (2008) //Arnica Montana for wounds

No placebo arm. No diluted beyond 10^23. Only 88 patients.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296914 (2005) //distinguishing homeopathy medicine from solvent

Can’t get full text. Doesn’t distinguish remedy from remedy though? Are all high dilution homeopathic remedies identical? (Yes).

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/is-a-unified-theory-of-homeopathy-and-conventional-medicine-possible/ (2007)

Not peer-reviewed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296914 (2005) //distinguishing homeopathy medicine from solvent

A repeated citation from above.

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/107555303321222928 (2003) //distinguishing homeopathy medicine from solvent

Can’t get full text.

2.Evidence-based Complimentary & Alternative Medicine (Oxford University Press)

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/4/1/7 (2007) FULL TEXT

http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2008/12/your_friday_dose_of_woo_when_a_mad_mathe.php

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/nep114v1 (2009) FULL TEXT //LM potency for Depression

Homeopathy no worse that Fluoxitine, which is itself only indicated for severe depression

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/2/4/441 (2005) FULL TEXT //immunology

Historical review paper. Irrelevant.

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/6/2/257 (2007) FULL TEXT //in-vitro, tumour

Heh – I “did” this one – Failure to control for ethanol concentration is epic. https://xtaldave.wordpress.com/2010/03/15/dynamised-preparations-in-cell-culture/

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/1/129 (2007) FULL TEXT //thallasemia

Some remedies beyond 10^23, some not. Small, variable N numbers – largest group 24 patients.

3.Complementary Therapy in Medicine (Elseiver)

http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/yctim/article/S0965-2299%2806%2900041-0/abstract (2006) //arnica for inflammation

Review of 3 trials. Arnica NOT beyond 10^23 (“. In arnica 30×, arnica is diluted 30 times with water, each dilution in the proportion 1:1”) Only one (with 57 patients made significance).

http://smhcv.org.mialias.net/wp-content/uploads/articulo_lancet3.pdf (2005) FULL TEXT //chronic diseases

Not Placebo controlled. Poorly matched groups (look at education, which is correlated with social class & prosperity & thus general health). No objective clinical outcome measures.

http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/yctim/article/S0965-2299%2807%2900013-1 (2007) //in vitro evidence of serial agitated ultra-molecular dilutions

Review of in-vitro experiments, eg. Basophile degranulation assays. Many of these studies not blinded. Notes that “No positive result was stable enough to be reproduced by all investigators.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16036165 (2005) //Arnica Montana & Bellis Perennis for bleeding after delivery

Bizarre. Trail conducted on ~210 patients. But this is a preliminary report of just 40. Which manages to just about crawl into
significance. Despite 5 years waiting, the full study not published yet… Also – some treatment groups not beyond 10^23 – and treatment groups look to be combined in analysis.

http://www.naturalnews.com/023697_homeopathy_medicine_steroids.html //homeopathy for eczema

Natural News. Lolzors..

4. Forsch Komplementarmed(German) meaning Research in Complimentary Medicine (English)

http://content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file=10.1159/000093586 (2006) //homeopathy is safe & effective

Tries to be a meta-review. Fails to examine or judge methodology. Multiple diseases and treatments and outcome measures.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295225 (2009) //Antimony 6X for pro-coagulatory effect in bleding disorder

Not beyond 10^23. Only 30 patients.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19420956 (2009) //homeopathy differs from placebo

Proving. Bonkers.


DOUBLE BLIND STUDIES

1. Public Health (Bio Med Central)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/5/115 (2005) FULL TEXT // (Chronic) Disease severity and quality of life demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment

Not placebo controlled, or indeed controlled or blinded at all. A study of regression to mean.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/413 (2008) FULL TEXT //Disease severity & quality of life increases following homeopathy treatment

Not placebo controlled, or indeed controlled or blinded at all. A study of regression to mean.

2. Homeopathy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18194760 (2008) //hot flushes in menopausal women

Not a controlled trial. No placebo arm.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14960096 (2004) //improved physical condition & high satisfaction, allopathy drug discontinued

No controls. No objective clinic outcomes measures.

3. Journal of Alternative & Complimentary Medicine

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2005.11.793 (2005) //chronic diseases

Not placebo controlled, or indeed controlled or blinded at all. “Patients who want sugar pills, like sugar pills”

4. Complimentary & Alternative Medicine (Bio Med Central)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/8/52 (2008) FULL TEXT //higher paptient satisfaction compared to allopathy

Patients satisfactory survey. Not relevant for efficacy.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/7 (2007) FULL TEXT
//respiratory& ear complaints

Not controlled. Many respiratory & ear complaints are viral in nature, and so comparison to conventional meds is not justified.

5. Homoeopathic Links

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI10.1055/s-0029-1240889 (2010) //Hepar sulphuris, Antimonium crudum, Sulphur and Calcarea carbonica for boils

Not beyond 10^23. Not controlled.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS & META ANALYSIS

http://www.homeopathyeurope.org/about-homeopathy/clinical-research/experimental-studies

Website

http://www.facultyofhomeopathy.org/research/systematic_reviews/index.html

Website

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310601 (1997) //89 studies: homeopathy is statistically significantly superior (2.45 times more effective) to placebo

Linde Test Fail (REPOST) – see above for conclusions of 1999 re-analysis.

http://journals.lww.com/pidj/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=03000&article=00005&type=abstract (2003) // diarrhea

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9451677 (1997) //post-operative ileus

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381725 (1997) //homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129180 (2010) //placebo effect size same in allopathy & homeopathy medicine

REPOST

http://smhcv.org.mialias.net/wp-content/uploads/articulo_lancet3.pdf (2005) FULL TEXT //chronic diseases

REPOST

ONLINE DATABASE


1. PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pmc.Pmc_LimitsTab.LimitsOff=true&db=pmc&cmd=search&term=homeopathy (1906-till date)

Websearch link.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843608 //hypericum for depression

St John’s Wort for depression. Not homeopathy.

2.InterScience (Wiley)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000448/frame.html (2009) //hypericum for depression

REPOST

3. Cochrane
http://www.library.nhs.uk/cam/ViewResource.aspx?resID=295205 (2008) //hypericum for depression

REPOST

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/rel0001/CD001957/frame.html (2003) // Oscillococcinum for influenza

See above – apparently shortened flu by 7 hours. How would you know? Noise.

4. HomBRex

http://www.carstens-stiftung.org/

WEBSITE

Evidence for Specific Disease Conditions

http://www.britishhomeopathic.org/research/Conditions_where_positive_evidence.html

WEBSITE

http://www.homeopathy-soh.org/whats-new/research/evid/clinical-trials.aspx

WEBSITE

http://www.nutrition-matters.co.uk/misc/homeopathy.htm

WEBSITE

http://www.facultyofhomeopathy.org/research/rcts_in_homeopathy/index.html

WEBSITE

http://bit.ly/aojfhY (1986) //Arnica, Bryonia & Rhus Tox for fibromyalgia

Methodology paper. Maximum Patient number 24.

http://archfaci.ama-assn.org/content/8/1/54.long (2006) FULL TEXT //Arnica for bruising

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673648 (2010) //Nux Vomica 30 & Coffea Cruda 30 for insomnia

REPOST

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0142%2820010801%2992:3%3C684::AID-CNCR1371%3E3.0.CO;2-%23/full (2001) FULL TEXT //Traumeel S for stomatitis

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19799472 (2009) //Sinfrontal for ENT & respiratory tract infections

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381725 (1997) //homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever

REPOST

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2007.0560 (2008) //Arnica Montana for wounds

REPOST

http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/yctim/article/S0965-2299%2806%2900041-0/abstract (2006) //arnica for inflammation

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16036165 (2005) //Arnica Montana & Bellis Perennis for bleeding after delivery

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295225 (2009) //Antimony 6X for pro-coagulatory effect in bleeding disorder

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843608 //hypericum for depression

REPOST

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/rel0001/CD001957/frame.html (2003) // Oscillococcinum for influenza

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371566 (2008) //osteo-arthritis

REPOST

http://nationalcenterforhomeopathy.org/content/effect-of-homoeopathic-treatment-on-fibrositis (1989) //fibromyalgia (Inflammation in muscles)

REPOST

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09546639709160282 (1997) //Sulphur 6, Siliciea 6 & Carbo Veg 6 for ulcer

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9708713 (1998) //vertigo

REPOST

http://www.heelusa.com/practitioners/clinicalresearch/Docs/Euphorbium/Homeopathic_Sinusitis_Medication.pdf (1995) FULL TEXT //sinus

Not beyond 10^23. Not significant.

http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/369 (2010) //Nux-Vomica, Merc, Belladonna for acute rhinitis

REPOST

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI10.1055/s-0029-1240889 (2010) //Hepar sulphuris, Antimonium crudum, Sulphur and Calcarea carbonica for boils

REPOST

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/7/1/129 (2007) FULL TEXT //thallasemia

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628642 (2007) //Arsenicum Album 30 for arsenic toxicity

REPOST

http://bit.ly/cM9faz (2003) //Ruta 6 for brain cancer

REPOST

Homeopathy Research Resource

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/

WEBSITE

http://forums.hpathy.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=7796

WEBSITE

http://www.nationalcenterforhomeopathy.org/articles-research // USA

WEBSITE

http://www.homeopathy-soh.org/whats-new/research/default.aspx //EU

WEBSITE

http://www.positivehealth.com/research-list.php?subjectid=134

WEBSITE

http://avilian.co.uk/category/homeopathy/research/

WEBSITE

http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-research-models/

WEBSITE

http://www.studytemple.com/forum/homoeopath-ayurveda/48051-scientific-testing-homeopathy-special-section-2.html

WEBSITE

Homeopathy superior to Allopathy

http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/94/2/368 (2006) //why small doses is better than large dose

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358959 (2009) //homeopathy as an adjunct to usual care for fibromyalgia

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14960096 (2004) //improved physical condition & high satisfaction, allopathy drug discontinued

REPOST

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/8/52 (2008) FULL TEXT //higher patient satisfaction compared to allopathy

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9247843 (1997) //otitis media

REPOST

A pilot study in Ghana showing homoeopathic treatment equal to and slightly more effective than chloroquine in the treatment of acute malaria (Br Homoeopath J 1996 Apr;85(2):66-70).

Homeopathy cost-effective than allopathy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19135953 (2009) //treatment of respiratory infections by homeopathy is cheaper by 50% compared to conventional medicine

REPOST

http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/286/354 (2008) FULL TEXT

REPOST

Homeopathy equals Allopathy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129180 (2010) //placebo effect size same in allopathy & homeopathy medicine

REPOST

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/7 (2007) FULL TEXT //respiratory& ear complaints

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9708713(1998) //vertigo

REPOST

Homeopathy superior to placebo

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9310601 (1997) //homeopathy is statistically significantly superior (2.45 times more effective) to placebo

REPOST

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2894%2990407-3/abstract (1994) //homeopathy does more than placebo

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19420956 (2009) //homeopathy differs from placebo

REPOST

http://bit.ly/9R3TVG (2006) FULL TEXT //patho-genetic trials

REPOST

http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/yctim/article/S0965-2299%2806%2900041-0/abstract (2006) //arnica for inflammation

REPOST

http://www.vasezdravlje.com/izdanje/clanak/1874/ FULL TEXT // tonsillitis

REPOST

http://journals.lww.com/pidj/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=03000&article=00005&type=abstract (2003) // diarrhea

REPOST

http://www.modernhomoeopathy.com/research_and_homeopathy.htm // Migraine, Berlin Journal for research in homeopathy

WEBSITE

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7259/471 (2000) FULL TEXT //allergic rhinitis

REPOST

http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/127/3/936.full (2005) FULL TEXT //Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

REPOST

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15892486 (2005) //severe sepsis

REPOST

http://www.library.nhs.uk/cam/ViewResource.aspx?resID=295205 (2008) //hypericum for depression

REPOST

http://journals.lww.com/pidj/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2001&issue=02000&article=00012&type=abstract (2001) //otitis media

REPOST

Homeopathy improving Quality of life

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/5/115 (2005) FULL TEXT // (Chronic) Disease severity and quality of life (QoL) demonstrated marked and sustained improvements following homeopathic treatment

REPOST

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/413 (2008) FULL TEXT //Disease severity & QoL of life increases following homeopathy treatment

REPOST

http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/286/354 (2008) FULL TEXT

REPOST

More Research Studies

http://excalibur.110mb.com/experiments.htm //fish kill / laser reflection experiments

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.homeopathy-soh.org/whats-new/documents/Positivehomeopathy.pdf

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.psicounsel.com/marius/proof.html

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.healinginealing.com/homeopathyresearch.php

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.wholistichealingresearch.com/homeopathy.html

Not peer reviewed.

http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-research-forums-and-discussion-groups/

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.earthsremedy.com/researchinhomeopathy.htm

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.homeopathyworkedforme.org/#/researchlinks/4526687502

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.emaxhealth.com/60/23628.html

Not peer reviewed.

http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com/ceweb/about/knowledge.jsp

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.heel.ca/pub/library/studies.jsp

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.modernhomoeopathy.com/future%20homoeopathy.htm

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.modernhomoeopathy.com/advanceshomoeopathy.htm

Not peer reviewed.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/bristol/4454856.stm

Not peer reviewed.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bristol/somerset/4454856.stm

Not peer reviewed.

Physics behind homeopathy

http://excalibur.110mb.com/physics.htm

Not peer reviewed.

http://lewfh.tripod.com/electromagneticinfectioninhomeopathy/id4.html

Not peer reviewed.

Memory of Water

http://hubpages.com/hub/Homeopathy-and-The-Memory-of-Water-with-Benveniste

Not peer reviewed.

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/memory-of-water/

Not peer reviewed.

http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-water-memory/

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/chaplin.html

Not peer reviewed.

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/hydrobiotronics/

Not peer reviewed.

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/lionel-milgrom/

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.newdawnmagazine.com/Article/The%20Work%20of%20Dr.%20Masaru%20Emoto.html

Not peer reviewed.

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3817

Not peer reviewed.

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-papers/transmission-of-energetic-information-in-the-body-its-relevance-to-homeopathic-remedies-and-to-other-energetic-healing-approaches/

Not peer reviewed.

http://hpathy.com/homeopathyforums/forum_posts.asp?TID=8578

Not peer reviewed.

http://lkm.fri.uni-lj.si/xaigor/slo/znanclanki/instrumental.htm

Tries very hard to look like a peer-reviewed paper, but I can’t find it in pubmed…. hmm.

http://www.physorg.com/news105191502.html

Not peer reviewed.

Dilutions beyond Avogadro Number

http://www.nonlinearbiomedphys.com/content/3/1/10

REPOST

http://lkm.fri.uni-lj.si/xaigor/slo/znanclanki/instrumental.htm

REPOST

http://www.high-dilutions.net/VersionAn/

WEBSITE

http://www.homeorizon.com/homeopathic-articles/homeopathic-researches/homeopathic-dilution-and-potency

WEBSITE

http://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/127/3/936.full

REPOST

http://www.otherhealth.com/research-scientific-validity-homeopathy/6082-homeopathy-mere-placebo-5.html#post81542

WEBSITE

Evidence-based Medicine

http://www.homeopathyworldcommunity.com/forum/topics/uk-house-of-commons-science

WEBSITE

http://www.the-cma.org.uk/cma_images/Jayney‘s%20Presentation.pdf //Pandemics & epidemics 1813-1918

IRRELEVANT

http://www.jameslindlibrary.org/illustrating/articles/dean-me-2003-the-homeopathic-mustard-gas-trials-of-1941%E2%80%9342

Not Peer reviewed

To distinguish one homeopathy medicine from another


(6 methods) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/lionel-milgrom/

Not Peer reviewed

Nuclear Spectroscopy

http://hpathy.com/homeopathyforums/forum_posts.asp?TID=8879

Not Peer reviewed

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371568 (2008)

REPOST

http://www.hpathy.com/homeopathyforums/forum_posts.asp?TID=6908&PN=4

Protected Forum

Electromagnetic Signatures

http://forums.hpathy.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=10498

Not Peer reviewed

http://www.homeopathyworldcommunity.com/profiles/blogs/nobel-laureate-explains-the

Not Peer reviewed

http://bit.ly/bTYpdX

Not Peer reviewed

Thermo-luminescence

http://bit.ly/d7e0Oq

REPOST

Physiological variability in human body

http://homeoresearch.blogspot.com/

Not peer reviewed

http://www.jr.ietejournals.org/downloadpdf.asp?issn=0377-2063;year=2008;volume=54;issue=3;spage=223;epage=230;aulast=Jain;type=2

Can’t get full text

http://www.jr.ietejournals.org/temp/IETEJRes543223-2643883_072038.pdf

Duff Link

Medical Analyser

http://forums.hpathy.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=2530

Not peer reviewed

http://h-wave.blogspot.com/2007_12_01_archive.html

Not peer reviewed

http://gentlecare.blogspot.com/2009/08/research-into-how-homoeopathic-remedies.html

Not peer reviewed

Raman Laser SpectroscopyIn 1976, Boiron and Vinh used Raman Laser Spectroscopy, showing that for the 1C potency of Kali bichromicum the spectrum of alcohol disap-pears completely, while that for potassium bichromate appears. In Kali bich 1C the ratio of the number of potassium bichromate molecules is 1 to 500. In such a case the light meets 500 more alcohol molecules as those of bichromate, yet the alcohol spectrum does not appear.

Eh?

To distinguish homeopathy medicine from solvent

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296914 // Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum

Can’t get full text

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/107555303321222928 //Bio-Electrography

Can’t get full text – “the present findings also highlight the need for additional research to evaluate factors that may affect
reproducibility of results.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657201 (2009) //Aconitum 30C differs from placebo

27 patients – non-objective outcome measures.

Placebo Effect

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129180 (2010) //placebo effect size same in allopathy & homeopathy medicine

REPOST

http://homoeopathyclinic.com/articles/homeopathy.pdf

DUFF LINK

Anecdotal Evidence [PSHAW!]

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1040950/The-alternative-Holby-City-treats-30-000-patients-year.html

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.i-sis.org.uk/peerReviewUnderTheSpotlight.php

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.electriceditor.com/impossiblecure/showstories.php

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.rationalskepticism.org/pseudoscience/the-danger-of-science-denial-alternative-medicine-split-t7418-760.html#p286797

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.rationalskepticism.org/pseudoscience/the-danger-of-science-denial-alternative-medicine-split-t7418-760.html#p288037

NOT PEER REVIEWED

Potency Selection

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-philosophy/removing-the-guesswork-from-potency-selection/

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-philosophy/homeopathic-potency-selection/

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.homeoint.org/site/ahmad/potency.htm

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://excalibur.110mb.com/myspc-lm.htm

NOT PEER REVIEWED

Vital Force

http://forums.hpathy.com/forum_posts.asp?TID=9047

NOT PEER REVIEWED

Animal Studies

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17982565 (2007) //Scientific World Journal

Discussed here http://hawk-handsaw.blogspot.com/2010/08/dr-nancy-malik-is-spamming-my-blog.html

http://hpathy.com/homeopathy-scientific-research/research-in-homoeopathy/3/

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-animal-studies/

NOT PEER REVIEWED

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/1/abstract

Concludes: “The discrepancies between single-blind and double-blind methods in animal pharmacological research are noteworthy and should be better investigated, also in non-homeopathic research.”

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/2/171FULL TEXT

Lit review.

http://ict.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/4/362

Another cell culture based paper which fails to control for alcohol.

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/6/1/65

Actually controls for alcohol, but with 6 mice in each group….

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/2/4 FULL TEXT

Doesn’t control for alcohol

http://www.mri.psu.edu/faculty/rroy/media/Publications/DefiningStructure.pdf FULL TEXT

The authors note that this is not reproducible, even on the same make of Raman spec – only the spec used in this study. Oh dear.

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/nep139 FULLTEXT

Small sample sizes. Both sub and beyond 10^23 remedies used. Big variation in data.

http://drprabhattandon.wordpress.com/2009/05/28/dynamized-homeopathic-preparations-in-cell-culture-a-study-report-in-amala-cancer-research-centre-kerala/

Review of a study which fails to control for ethanol content – again

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18657773

Not beyond 10^23. Mice behavioural studies are difficult to assess and quantify.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484832 (1999) //Alternative Therapies in Health & Management

“To confirm whether antibiotic metaphylaxis may be replaced by homeopathic metaphylaxis, this study should be repeated
independently.”

http://www.similima.com/thesis39.html

Not peer reviewed

Plant Studies

http://avilian.co.uk/2008/08/scientific-research-and-homeopathy-plant-studies/

Another list. Another day.